Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon
Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (Alexander the Great, Alexander III of Macedon) (356-323 B.C.), King of Macedonia, was born in late July 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia, he was one of the greatest military geniuses in history. He conquered much of what was then the civilized world, driven by his divine ambition of the world conquest and the creation of a universal world monarchy.
Alexander the Great Timeline
* Alexander born in Pella. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus burned that same day. Soothsayers of the time were convinced it marked the end of Asia - Alexander was to prove them right.
* Philip captures Potidaea.
* Parmenio defeats Paeonians and Illyrians.
* Demosthenes attacks idea of a 'Crusade against Persia'.
* Mid-summer: Philip captures Mathone: loses his eye in the battle.
* Artabazus and Memnon refugees with Philip, who now emerges as potential leader of crusade against Persia.
* Philip's fleet attacking Athenian shipping.
* Demosthenes' First Philippic.
* Philip captures Olynthus.
* Aeschines' attempt to unite Greek states against Philip fails.
* Halus besieged by Parmeniio
* April: peace of Philocrates ratified.
* Second Athenian embassy held up till July.
* Philip occupies Thermopylae.
* Philip admitted to seat on Amphictyonic Council, and presides over Pythian Olympic Games.
* Isocrates publishes Philippus.
* Philip appointed Archon of Thessaly for life.
* Non-aggression pact between Philip and Artaxerxes Ochus.
* The trial and acquittal of Aeschines.
* Aristotle invited to Macedonia as Alexander's tutor.
* Olympia's brother Alexander succeeds to throne of Epirus with Philip's backing.
* Congress of Allies meets in Athens.
* Demosthenes awarded gold crown at Dionysia.
* Alexander left as Regent in Macedonia: his raid on Maedi and the foundation of Alexandropolis.
* Philip's campaign against Perinthus and Byzantium.
* Philip occupies Elatea.
* Isocrates' Panathenaicus.
* August 2: Battle of Chaeronea. Philip leading 32,200 men defeats an allied force from Thebes and Athens - Alexander, a young man of only 18, leads the cavalry force.
* Alexander and his mother Olympia go into exile.
* Hellenic League convened at Corinth.
* Recall of Alexander to Pella.
* League at Corinth ratifies crusade against Persia.
* Parmenoi and Attalus sent to Asia Minor for preliminary military operations.
* Accession of Darius III Codomannus I June.
* Cleopatra bears Philip a son.
* Wedding of Alexander of Epirus to Olympia's daughter.
* Murder of Alexander's father, Philip II.
* Alexander accedes to the throne of Macedonia and becomes the first King of Greece.
* Alexander calls meeting of Hellenic League at Corinth, confirmed as Captain - General of anti-Persian crusade.
* Early spring: Alexander goes north to deal with Thrace and Illyria.
* Battle of Thebes. Alexander massacres 6,000 Thebans after they blocked the gates of his garrison.
* Alexander and the attacking force cross into Asia Minor.
* May: Battle of the Granicus - Alexander leads 35,000 men against a superior force of 40,000 Persians. Leading his cavalry across the Granicus River, he later brings up his mighty phalanx resulting in victory with only slight losses.
* General reorganization of Greek cities in Asia Minor.
* Siege and capture of Miletus.
* Autumn: reduction of Halicarnassus.
* Alexander advances through Lycia and Pamphylia.
* Alexander's column moves north to Celaenae and Gordium.
* Death of Memnon.
* Mustering of Persian forces in Babylon.
* Episode of the Gordian Knot.
* Alexander marches to Ancyra and then south to Cilician Gates.
* Darius moves westward from Babylon.
* September: Alexander reaches Tarsus: his illness there.
* Darius crosses the Euphrates.
* Battle if Issus. Alexander prevails at the Battle of Issus. Persian King Darius flees but Alexander captures his family.
* Alexander advances southward though Phoenicia.
* Marathus: first peace-offer by Darius.
* Submission of Byblos and Sidon.
* Siege of Tyre. Alexander takes eight months to capture and annihilate the city of Tyre. Built on an island. Alexander constructs a mole, or channel across to the island. Conquering the city killing 8,000 Tyrians and selling 30,000 more into slavery.
* Second peace-offer by Darius refused.
* July 29: fall of Tyre.
* Sept.-Oct.: Siege of Gaza. Alexander using techniques learned during the Siege at Tyre captures Gaza, a Persian garrison.
* Alexander crowned as Pharaoh at Memphis.
* Early spring: visit to the Oracle of Ammon at Siwah.
* April 7-8: foundation of Alexanderia.
* Alexander returns to Tyre.
* July-August: Alexander reaches Thapsacus on Euphrates; Darius moves his main forces from Babylon.
* September 18: Alexander crosses the Tigris.
* Darius' final peace-offer rejected.
* Sept. 30 or Oct. 1: Battle of Gaugamela. This historic victory made Alexander King of Asia. As the Persian leader Darius fled the field, Alexander had overcome being outnumbered 3 to 1. In the end Alexander's 47,000 troops inflicted terrible losses on the Persians.
* Macedonians advance from Arbela on Babylon, which falls in mid-October.
* Revolt of Agis defeated at Megalopolis.
* Early December: Alexander occupies Susa unopposed.
* Alexander forces Susian Gates.
* January: Alexander reaches and sacks Perseplis.
* May : burning of temples etc. in Persepols.
* Early June: Alexander sets out for Ecbatana.
* Darius retreats toward Bactria.
* Greek allies dismissed at Ecbatana; Parmenio left behind there, with Harpalus as Treasurer.
* Pursuit of Darius renewed, via Caspian Gates.
* July; Darius found murdered near Hecatompylus.
* Bessus establishes himself as 'Great King' in Bactria.
* March for Hyrcania begins.
* Late August: march to Drangiana.
* The 'conspiracy of Philotas'.
* March though Arachosia to Parapamisidae.
* March-April: Alexander crosses Hindu Kush by Khawak Pass.
* April-May: Alexander advancing to Bactria; Bessus retreats across the Oxus.
* June: Alexander reaches and crosses the Oxus; veterans and Thessalian volunteers dismissed.
* Surrender of Bessus.
* Alexander advances to Maracanda.
* Revolt of Spitamenes, annihilation of Macedonian detachment
* Alexander takes up winter quarters at Zariaspa.
* Execution of Bessus.
* Campaign against Spitamenes.
* Autumn: murder of Cleitus the Black.
* Defeat and death of Spitamenes.
* Spring: capture of the Soghdian Rock.
* Alexander's marriage to Roxane.
* Recruitment of 30,000 Perisan 'Successors'.
* The 'Pages Conspiracy' and Callisthenes' end.
* Early summer: Alexander re-crosses Hindu Kush by Kushan Pass: the invasion of India begins.
* Alexander reaches Nysa; the 'Dionysus episode'.
* Capture of Aornos.
* Advance to Taxila.
* Battle of the Hydaspes - Making his way to India, Alexander fought this monumental battle against the rajah Porus and his army of 30,000 supported by 200 elephants. Alexander's huge army of 65,000 Macedonians and 70,000 Asians killed or captured over 2/3 of Porus' army.
* Death of Bucephalas.
* July: Mutiny at the Hyphasis.
* Return to the Jhelum: reinforcements move down-river.
* Campaign against Brahmin cities: Alexander seriously wounded.
* Revolt in Bactria: 3000 mercenaries loose in Asia.
* Alexander reaches Patala, builds harbor and dockyards.
* September: Alexander's march through Gedrosian Desert.
* Defection of Harpalus from Asia Minor to Greece.
* The satrapal purge begins.
* Nearchus and the fleet reach Harmozia, link up with Alexander at Salmous.
* Arrival of Craterus form Drangiana.
* January: Nearches and fleet sent on to Susa.
* The episode of Cyrus' tomb.
* Alexander returns to Persepolis.
* Move to Susa, long halt there.
* Spring: arrival of 30,000 trained Persian 'Successors'.
* The Susa mass-marriages.
* March: the Exiles' Decree and the Deification Decree.
* Craterus appointed to succeed Antiparter as Regent, and convoy troops home.
* Alexander moves from Susa to Ecbatana.
* Death of Hephaestion.
* Assassination of Harpalus in Crete.
* Alexander's Campaign against the Cossaeans and return to Babylon.
* Alexander explores Pallacopas Canal; his boat-trip through the marshes.
* Arrival of Antipater's son Cassander to negotiate with Alexander.
* May 20/30: Alexander falls ill after a party; and dies on 10/11th June.
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